Soviet warship designs have often displayed an odd mixture of conservatism along with trend setting advances, all in the same design. At the start of the 1960s a new destroyer design appeared in the Black Sea. The initial ships were built at the 61 Kommuna Shipyard in Nikolayev and the class was called Project 61. NATO gave the design the code name Kashin.
The Soviets originally classified the design as an Eskadrenny Minonosets, which had been the Russian designation for destroyers since the 19th century. When the Royal Navy designed a ship to combat the threat of torpedo boats, it was called the Torpedo Boat Destroyer, which after awhile was shortened to destroyer. In Russia torpedo boats were called minonosets with the larger destroyer design called eskadrenny minonosets, literally squadron torpedo boats. The term had outlived its usefulness in describing 4,000 ton vessels armed to engage aerial, surface and submarine threats. Soviet nomenclature policy started listing the type of vessel by their functional mission. The Project 61 warships were given a new type designation, Bolshoi Protivolodochny Korabl (BPK), which meant large anti-submarine ship.
The Project 61 appeared at the same time as the Kynda rocket cruiser and it was assumed to be the designated escort for the new cruiser. The Project 61 BPK could be built at the rate of two per year, whereas the cruiser had a build rate of one per year. This suggested a conceptual surface strike package of one Kynda and two Kashins. Unlike the cruiser design, which was completely new, the Project 61 design had some developmental traits from the earlier Soviet destroyer designs, specifically the Kotlin design. Both designs were flush decked with a symmetrical fore and aft arrangement for the weapons systems. However, the Project 61 ships were far larger and more capable. With a full load displacement of 4,750 tons, these large vessels were really multipurpose in spite of the type name emphasizing their ASW role.
Soviet designers were never shy about loading on weapons systems and it showed to full advantage with this design. The four 76.2mm guns in twin mounts were dual purpose, AA and anti-surface, although their comparatively small size limited this function. The primary anti-surface weapon was the five tube 533mm torpedo mount amidships. In additional to the guns AA weapons included the SA-N-1 twin arm Goa missile system with 32 reloads. This system could also be pressed into an anti-surface role in a pinch. For ASW the design featured the RBU-6000 system of ASW rockets in mounts which covered the frontal arc of the ship and the RBU-1000 system of ASW rockets for engaging subsurface targets on the flanks of the ship. The RBU-6000 had 12 250mm rocket tubes and was mounted forward to engage submarines maneuvering to attack. The RBU-1000 was a self-loading mount derived from the hand loaded RBU-600 and had six 300mm rocket tubes with a shorter range (1,000m) but larger warhead than the RBU-6000 rockets. The heavier warhead was to destroy submarines that had revealed themselves and gone deep to avoid attack. The RBU-1000 system had replaced the BMB-2 depth charge throwers of the earlier Kotlin design. Additionally following the Imperial Russian and Soviet emphasis on mine warfare the Project 61 had mine rails and storage for 20 mines.
In one area the Project 61 was truly innovative. The propulsion system selected was the gas turbine that incorporated jet technology. At this time USN designs used high-pressure steam designs, which were the most advanced development of the steam turbine propulsion that first made its appearance in a major warship with HMS Dreadnought in 1907. Another ten years were to pass before the USN first adopted the gas turbine with the Spruance Class. Steam turbines were most efficient at lower speeds but the gas turbine reached its maximum efficiency at the higher power settings. The Royal Navy and West German Navy had developed destroyer and frigate designs at around this same time that used the gas turbine but they were tentative designs that used the gas turbine to supplement steam turbine (RN County Class destroyers and Tribal Class Frigates) or diesel (German Koln Class frigates) propulsion. Neither country took the plunge to an all gas turbine system. The Soviet Project 61 took the leap to all gas turbine and was rewarded with a power plant that was significantly more advanced than their western competitors. Not only was the design all gas turbine powered, the machinery used was at twice the power rating of the German gas turbine plant and three times that of the British design. Each of the four gas turbines generated 24,000hp for a total of 96,000hp and maximum speed of 36 knots. "Western Intelligence sources were so taken aback by this development that for many years the ‘Kashins’ were credited with eight, or even twelve turbines." (Soviet Warships 1945 to the Present, 1992, by John Jordan, at page 39)
The selection of the gas turbine gave insight into the intended use of the new design. Capable of fast start up, quick response and high-sustained speeds, the design did have one disadvantage, a lower radius of action than steam powered equivalents. The design was clearly meant for sustained combat operations but those had to be fairly close to the Soviet Union or an allied port, rather than a global reach. Indeed, since the efficiency of the power plant rose with the operating speed of the ship, the system was inefficient in a cruising role and drank fuel in copious quantities while cruising. To economize on fuel consumption, the Project 61 ships would operate on one turbine and one shaft when cruising but even this was not economical. The class had fixed propeller blades, so the blades of the propeller of the shaft not being operated would cause drag.
Gas turbines operate at a higher heat range than their steam equivalents and this caused another design decision on the Project 61 that gave it its unique appearance. They featured four huge exhaust stacks, one per turbine. They were double walled with the exterior wall being pierced by numerous round cooling openings to reduce the heat generated. The four stacks were paired and canted outward in order to reduce the deleterious heat and corrosive effects of the exhaust gases to the electronic equipment amidships and aft. The first unit completed was the Komsomolets Ukrainy, which entered service in February 1962. Apparently tests on the lead ship showed that further steps had to be undertaken to reduce interference of the electronics from the exhaust. The fore funnels of all following ships were heightened by 1.5m.
Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) equipment for the early ships was similar to the Kynda cruisers. They had a single Bell Slam fitting on a platform on the front of the foremast and pairs of Top Hat fittings, two above the bridge wings and two on platforms on the sides of the mainmast. They were also fitted with additional platforms for future equipment.
After production of Project 61 had started at 61 Kommuna on the Black Sea, the type also went into production in the Baltic at the Zhdanov Yards with the phase out of Kynda construction. When the Kresta cruiser design went into production at the Zhdanov yards, production of the Project 61 was discontinued in the Baltic but continued on the Black Sea. Even the uniform early Project 61 units had small fittings and appearance differences among the units of the class. Sometimes this was compelled by system shortages and what the yard had in stock and sometimes it was the result of experimentation to find a more efficient arrangement, or experimentation with a new system. In 1966 the Stroyny was the first of the units to be fitted with the new Head Net C air surveillance radar in place of the Head Net system of the earlier units and the addition of the Big Net system on the main mast. Generally the older units were not retro-fitted as new equipment came on line, except for Odarenny, which received the Head Net C in the 1980s. Ships completing in the period of 1968-1969 received new navigation radars. First the Don-2 and then the Don-Kay.
In the late 1960s the Soviet Navy was actively engaged in forward deployments and came in frequent contact with the navies of the NATO powers, especially in the Mediterranean. The Soviets would stalk the task forces with their carrier killer rocket cruisers and submarines and maintain close contact with destroyers. Since the prime anti-surface platforms of rocket cruisers or submarines were not designed for this close contact, the right destroyer class for this mission had to be found. The Type 61 Kashin was perfect for this role as they had high speed and their gas turbines provided extraordinary acceleration. They needed a high performance ship that could maintain close contact with the western forces. The Project 61 ships had the necessary performance but were weak on anti-surface capability. To fulfill this mission of close contact with western naval forces, the Project 61 received a major redesign to add significant SSM capability to the design. The design added four missile canisters, which faced aft and fired over the stern. This was a reasoned decision as the mission of the Type 61M was to vector missile fire onto the carriers from a stand off distance and then as they retired, fire their own barrage over the stern. This new design was called the Project 61M or "Modified Kashin". Six of the type 61M variants were built. Five were rebuilt to the configuration from the original Type 61 ships. They were Ognevoy (Curtain of Fire) converted 1973, Slavnyy (Glorious) converted 1975, Stroynyy (Harmonious) converted 1980, Smyshlennyy (Clever) converted 1974, and Smelyy (Daring) converted 1974. A sixth unit, Sderzhannyy (Cautious) was built to the specifications and in service in 1973. The modifications also included raising the flight deck one level, addition of variable depth sonar from the transom of the new aft deck house created by raising the flight deck, lengthening the hull six feet, addition of four AK630 30mm six-barreled Gatling guns for close in air defense added with the RBU-1000 ASW rocket mounts deleted, Bass Tilt radars to control the AK630 mounts, upgraded ECM fit, and Head Net C air search radars replaced the earlier Headnet A sets. Displacement rose by 200 tons to 3,950-tons, 4,950-tons full load. While the conversions of the Project 61 ships into Project 61M ships was taking place, an entirely different conversion of one member of the class took place.
One of the original Project 61 ships was converted to a different design from the Project 61M ships. This was Provorny (Ferocious). The Provorny went into service in 1964. Built at the Zhdanov Ship Yard in Leningrad, the ship served in her original Project 61 configuration until the mid-1970s. The conversion took place in a Black Sea shipyard and the purpose was to convert the Provorny into a missile trials ship for the Shtil SA-N-7 missile system. The design was given its own designation, Project 61E. The SA-N-1 systems were landed and the bridge was built up in a manner similar to that used for the Project 61M modified Kashins. The lattice main mast was replaced with a solid pylon main mast. A single arm SA-N-7 launcher was placed in the aft. Fittings for two SA-N-7 systems were made forward but the missile mounts were not installed. Eight SAM directors were installed to provide maximum coverage for the missile mount. The radar fit on Provorny also was different than that found in the Project 61 or Project 61M ships. At the top of the main mast the Provorny carried the Top Steer combined surface/air search radar. The only EW equipment installed were chaff launchers, although provisions were made for two Bell Shrouds and two Bell Squat fittings. The ship served in the Black Sea and was stricken in 1990. (History from Combat Fleets of the World 1988/89, 1989, English Edition prepared by A. D. Baker III; Guide to the Soviet Navy, Fourth Edition, 1986, by Norman Polmar; Soviet Warships 1945 to the Present, 1992, by John Jordan; Warships Today, 2004, by Chris Chant)
The Combrig Project 61E "Kashin"
Almost all of the class appeared in the original Project 61 guise (Click for review of the Combrig Project 61 Obraztsovy) when they originally entered service in the Soviet Navy and were subsequently modified to incorporate new features. The original Project 61 design represented the cleanest appearance of the class, as future modifications created a more substantial superstructure along with the addition of new weapons and sensor systems, making the ships of the class even more "busier". The second most numerous variant of the class were those units lengthened and given SSM missiles. These are the units of the Project 61M, modified Kashin, design. (Click for review of the Combrig Slavny)
\The five Combrig kits of Project 61 Kashin destroyers cover the entire service life of the class.
Obraztsovy- Combrig model #70336 is of the initial Project 61 design as of 1965. Almost all of the ships appeared originally in this configuration. Obraztsovy had a different ECM arrangement than the earlier ships.
Slavny– Combrig model #70337 is of the Project 61M "Modified Kashin" after the design was reworked to add SSM missiles as of 1975. The major addition was the inclusion of Styx missile canisters with blast deflection shields on the aft portion of the ships. All except one were refitted Project 61 ships.
Provorny– Combrig model #70338 is a one-off variant Project 61E which represents the ship after it was modified as a weapons test platform for the Shtil SA-N-7 SAM system and substituted a tall solid pylon in place of the lattice main mast as of 1981.
Smetlivy–Combrig model #70339 is another one-off variant of the class. Reworked in 1991, the ship also received the designation Project 61E but in appearance was very different from the Provorny. Smetlivy lost her aft 76.2 gun mount to allow for more robust flight operations and sonar capability. Also she substituted a seven-tube 406mm torpedo mount for the standard five tube 533mm version.
Rajput – Combrig model #70397 is the model for Project 61ME, the variant built for the navy of India, which was built with SSM mounts forward and no aft 76.2 mount for a more robust air operation capability. They were completed from 1980 and throughout the 1980s.
The Combrig Project 61E Provorny has a slightly different hull from the Combrig Project 61 Obraztsovy. The hull casting only requires a minimal clean up at the waterline. The one difference in the hull casting between the two is the much larger well for the larger superstructure of Provorny compared to the smaller well for the smaller superstructure of Obraztsovy. One quickly notices the first level of the superstructure two-thirds the length of the ship. That is a true indicator that there will be many interesting things to come in superstructure, weapons, electronics and other fittings. Looking at the hull sides a knuckle running the aft 80% of the hull sides is immediately apparent. A single anchor well on either side of the bow further decorates the shark like bow with extreme sheer and sharply raked cutwater. There is no doubt about it, Soviet designers created some absolutely spectacular designs that had aggressive good looks.
The 01 level superstructure bulkheads have incised square windows, ventilator louvers and doors. With a metal deck, you of course don’t find wooden planking detail but with large expanse covered by the superstructure, deck space on the Project 61E was very limited and crowded. The short forecastle features cast on anchor chain running from locator holes for separate windlasses to two deck hawse plates. There are also four sets of twin bollards and four open chocks on the deck edge. Two incised rectangles represent some fittings, probably access hatches. The V-shaped breakwater is excellent. It is admirably thin with intricate support gussets on the aft face. The short deck area between the breakwater and forward superstructure in dominated by the raised circular base for the forward twin 76mm-gun mount. The only other detail found there are two twin bollards and two open chocks. For the greatest length of the forward superstructure the main deck is just a narrow gangway on either side of the superstructure with limited fittings. On each side are two twin bollards and one open chock. Fittings aft of the 01 level is another base for the aft 76mm gun mount, four more twin bollards and two open chocks. The quarterdeck of Provorny is the same as the Obraztsovy with a landing deck for helicopters but no hangar as in Slavny. Deck railings for mine deployment is depicted as lines incised in the deck. These run from the bulkheads of the aft face of the 01 level to deployment chutes at the stern. Most of the 01 deck will be covered by additional superstructure parts but there is additional detail found there. Two parallel lines of curving rails are found on either side of the quintuple 533mm torpedo mount along with base plates for RBU-1000 ASW rocket mounts.
Smaller Resin Parts
With this kit there are a lot of smaller parts. Most striking are the two sets of sharply raked twin funnels. Each stack part has two side by side exhaust stacks with hollow tops and ventilator slits incised on the sides to cool the exhaust gases. The forward pair is significantly larger than the aft pair. The forward superstructure tower is comprised of four parts that fit one on top of the other. On the 02 level are found base plates for the RBU-6000 ASW rocket mounts. Round portholes and square windows are incised into the sides of three of these parts. Another large piece is the solid pylon that replaced the lattice mainmast. A large resin sheet contains many of the platforms and smaller superstructure parts. There are fourteen various platforms on this sheet ranging from large platforms for the fore and aft missile positions, to other equipment platforms, to tower platforms to masthead platforms. Each AA missile platform has loading door detail. Of course only the aft missile mount was installed but the two sets of doors for the forward missile mounts are present but there are no missile mounts. All parts on this sheet are easily removed from the sheet but will require minor sanding to remove any sheet residue. Although three of the tower superstructure parts previously described are on this sheet, other superstructure pieces include assorted other small deckhouses found on top of the 01 deck. A second smaller resin sheet has five pieces. One is a platform for the aft face of the forward superstructure but as for the other four, I am uncertain. I believe they are two superstructure parts with separate platforms. The main problem is there is no assembly module for the forward superstructure. The assembly diagram simply shows the superstructure already assembled.
Other superstructure parts not found on either of the two resin sheets include the round pedestal tower for the forward Screech Owl gun control radar, base deckhouse inside lattice foremast, and aft radar superstructure. The large number of weapons and fittings for the model are found on resin runners. Weapons runners are for RBU-6000 mounts, 533mm torpedo mount, 76mm twin guns and turrets, and SA-N-7 SAM mount. Runners of fittings include life raft canisters, anchor winches, anchors, ECM fittings, signal lamps, ship’s boats, boat chocks, davits, mast platforms, radar houses and the smaller electronic gear. This kit was released a couple of years ago. The parts are not as detailed has the outstanding components of current Combrig kits. They give you the shapes but not quite the same level of detail. However, en masse, as you assemble the kit the model still appears to be a very exciting, if challenging, build.
Brass Photo-Etch Frets
The Provorny Project 61E, Kashin, destroyer provides a one-off variation of this numerous destroyer class. With the Combrig Provorny Project 61E BPK in 1:700 scale, every modeler can build this unique vessel in her configuration as missile test platform with the solid pylon main mast, Top Steer array, and single SA-N-7 mount aft.